When the great plague was at London, the yearthe Queen's Majesty, Queen Elizabethlay at her Castle of Windsor, where, upon the 10th day of December, it fortuned that in Sir William Cecil 's chamber, her Highness' principal secretary, there dined together these personages: Haddon, Master of Requests ; Mr. Of which number, the most part were of her Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, and the rest serving her in very good place.
Birching, Germany17th century Depiction of a flogging at Oregon State Penitentiary, Corporal punishment of children has traditionally been used in the Western world by adults in authority roles.
He that spareth the rod, hateth his son; but he that loveth him, chasteneth him betimes. Proverbs, XIX, 18 Judgements are prepared for scorners, and stripes for the backs of fools. Proverbs, XIX, 29 Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it from him.
Proverbs, XXII, 15 Withhold not correction from the child; for if thou beatest him with a rod, thou shalt deliver his soul from hell.
Proverbs, XXIX, 15  Robert McCole Wilson argues, The scholemaster essay this attitude comes, at least in part, from the desire in the patriarchal society for the elder to maintain his authority, where that authority was the main agent for social stability. But these are the words The scholemaster essay not only justified the use of physical punishment on children for over a thousand years in Christian communities, but ordered it to be used.
The words were accepted with but few exceptions; it is only in the last two hundred years that there has been a growing body of opinion that differed. Curiously, the gentleness of Christ towards children Mark, X was usually ignored". In the Roman Empire, the maximum penalty that a Roman citizen could receive under the law was 40 "lashes" or "strokes" with a whip applied to the back and shoulders, or with the " fasces " similar to a birch rod, but consisting of 8—10 lengths of willow rather than birch applied to the buttocks.
Such punishments could draw blood, and were frequently inflicted in public. According to Robert McCole Wilson, "probably no more lucid indictment of it has been made in the succeeding two thousand years".
This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the free-born; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation.
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This had an influence on the use of corporal punishment in schools, as educational establishments were closely attached to the church during this period.
Nevertheless, corporal punishment was not used uncritically; as early as the eleventh century Saint AnselmArchbishop of Canterbury was speaking out against what he saw as the excessive use of corporal punishment in the treatment of children. Judicial punishments were increasingly turned into public spectacles, with public beatings of criminals intended as a deterrent to other would-be offenders.
Meanwhile, early writers on education, such as Roger Aschamcomplained of the arbitrary manner in which children were punished. Locke's work was highly influential, and may have helped influence Polish legislators to ban corporal punishment from Poland's schools inthe first country in the world to do so.
Merely inflicting pain was seen as an inefficient form of discipline, influencing the subject only for a short period of time and effecting no permanent change in their behaviour.
Some believed that the purpose of punishment should be reformation, not retribution.
This is perhaps best expressed in Jeremy Bentham 's idea of a panoptic prison, in which prisoners were controlled and surveyed at all times, perceived to be advantageous in that this system supposedly reduced the need of measures such as corporal punishment.
A consequence of this mode of thinking was a reduction in the use of corporal punishment in the 19th century in Europe and North America. In some countries this was encouraged by scandals involving individuals seriously hurt during acts of corporal punishment.
For instance, in Britain, popular opposition to punishment was encouraged by two significant cases, the death of Private Frederick John Whitewho died after a military flogging in and the death of Reginald Cancellorkilled by his schoolmaster in By the First World War, parents' complaints about disciplinary excesses in England had died down, and corporal punishment was established as an expected form of school discipline.
Meanwhile, in many schools, the use of the cane, paddle or tawse remained commonplace in the UK and the United States until the s. In several other countries, it still is: Among hunter-gatherer tribes[ edit ] Author Jared Diamond writes that hunter-gatherer societies have tended to use little corporal punishment whereas agricultural and industrial societies tend to use progressively more of it.
Diamond suggests this may be because hunter-gatherers tend to have few valuable physical possessions, and misbehavior of the child would not cause harm to others' property. Probably the only generalization that can be made about the use of physical punishment among primitive tribes is that there was no common procedure [ Years with particular significance to the prohibition of corporal punishment are emphasised.
European Court of Human Rightsoverseeing its implementation, rules that judicial birching of a juvenile breaches Article 3. Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty.
Human Rights Committeeoverseeing its implementation, comments: Committee Against Tortureoverseeing its implementation, condemns corporal punishment. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rightsoverseeing its implementation, comments: European Social CharterCouncil of Europe.
European Committee of Social Rightsoverseeing its implementation, concludes:Tips for writing scholarship essays. Your scholarship essay lets the selection committee get to know you beyond the grades and test scores.
Quick tips to help you write your scholarship essayLocation: P.O. Box , Philadelphia, PA, Other articles where The Schoolmaster is discussed: Roger Ascham: The Scholemaster, written in simple, lucid English prose and published posthumously in , is Ascham’s best-known book.
It presents an effective method of teaching Latin prose composition, but its larger concerns are with the psychology of learning, the education of the whole person, and the ideal. Dec 30, · OK, this post is for all the undergrads out there who will be writing English essays for me (or frankly for anyone else) in the future.
There are a few words that you really need to eliminate from your writing in order to make your prose more concise, analytically rigorous, and meaningful.
When the great plague was at London, the year , the Queen's Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, lay at her Castle of Windsor, where, upon the 10th day of December, it fortuned that in Sir William Cecil's chamber, her Highness' principal secretary, there dined together these personages: Mr.
Secretary. Scholarship Essay Guide Getting a scholarship almost always requires writing a good scholarship essay. How do you do that? What is the proven path? Timeline. a chronological list of events, reports, education acts, official papers and other publications.
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