RICAS Accommodations and Accessibility Features Manual contains all of the information on allowable accommodations for students with disabilities and English Learners and accessibility features for all students. Bilingual dictionaries should not be given to a student on the day of testing. As a rule, bilingual dictionaries and glossaries may not contain any pictures, or definitions; only word-to-word dictionaries and glossaries are permitted. RICE encourages educators to familiarize any student who will be using these reference sheets or graphic organizers with these tools during instruction throughout the school year since students using these tools should be comfortable using them during RICAS testing.
By Alfie Kohn [This is a slightly expanded version of the published article.
Suddenly all the joy was taken away. I was writing for a grade — I was no longer exploring for me. I want to get that back. Will I ever get that back? We need to collect information about how students are doing, and then we need to share that information along with our judgments, perhaps with the students and their parents.
You say the devil is in the details? In fact, students would be a lot better off without either of these relics from a less enlightened age.
Why tests are not a particularly useful way to assess student learning at least the kind that mattersand what thoughtful educators do instead, middle grades writing assessment rubric questions that must wait for another day.
Here, our task is to take a hard look at the second practice, the use of letters or numbers as evaluative summaries of how well students have done, regardless of the method used to arrive at those judgments. Even on a measure of rote recall, the graded group remembered fewer facts a week later Grolnick and Ryan, Research on the effects of grading has slowed down in the last couple of decades, but the studies that are still being done reinforce the earlier findings.
For example, a grade-oriented environment is associated with increased levels of cheating Anderman and Murdock,grades whether or not accompanied by comments promote a fear of failure even in high-achieving students Pulfrey et al.
But, the student persisted, what if he studied very hard? The latter serve to illuminate a series of misconceived assumptions that underlie the use of grading. Extrinsic motivation, which includes a desire to get better grades, is not only different from, but often undermines, intrinsic motivation, a desire to learn for its own sake Kohn a.
Many assessment specialists talk about motivation as though it were a single entity — and their recommended practices just put a finer gloss on a system of rewards and punishments that leads students to chase marks and become less interested in the learning itself. And that is exactly what happens when we try to fit learning into a four- or five- or heaven help us point scale.
The result is that teachers may become more adept at measuring how well students have mastered a collection of facts and skills whose value is questionable — and never questioned. Nor, we might add, is it worth assessing accurately. They offer a way to thoughtfully gather a variety of meaningful examples of learning for the students to review.
Conversely, one sometimes finds a mismatch between more thoughtful forms of pedagogy — say, a workshop approach to teaching writing — and a depressingly standardized assessment tool like rubrics Wilson, Rating and ranking students and their efforts to figure things out is inherently counterproductive.
Rubrics typically include numbers as well as labels, which is only one of several reasons they merit our skepticism Wilson, ; Kohn, In fact, posting grades on-line is a significant step backward because it enhances the salience of those grades and therefore their destructive effects on learning.
Moreover, research suggests that the harmful impact of grades on creativity is no less and possibly even more potent when a narrative accompanies them.
Narratives are helpful only in the absence of grades Butler, ; Pulfrey et al.
That phrase may suggest any number of things — for example, more consistency, or a reliance on more elaborate formulas, in determining grades; greater specificity about what each grade signifies; or an increase in the number of tasks or skills that are graded.
At best, these prescriptions do nothing to address the fundamental problems with grading. At worst, they exacerbate those problems. And more frequent temperature-taking produces exactly the kind of disproportionate attention to performance at the expense of learning that researchers have found to be so counterproductive.
In my experience, the best teachers tend to be skeptical about aligning their teaching to a list imposed by distant authorities, or using that list as a basis for assessing how well their students are thinking.
This surely represents an improvement over a system in which the number of top marks is made artificially scarce and students are set against one another. If we begin with a desire to assess more often, or to produce more data, or to improve the consistency of our grading, then certain prescriptions will follow.
We may come to see grading as a huge, noisy, fuel-guzzling, smoke-belching machine that constantly requires repairs and new parts, when what we should be doing is pulling the plug. What matters is whether a given practice is in the best interest of students.
Replacing letter and number grades with narrative assessments or conferences — qualitative summaries of student progress offered in writing or as part of a conversation — is not a utopian fantasy. It has already been done successfully in many elementary and middle schools and even in some high schools, both public and private Kohn, c.
Naturally objections will be raised to this — or any — significant policy change, but once students and their parents have been shown the relevant research, reassured about their concerns, and invited to participate in constructing alternative forms of assessment, the abolition of grades proves to be not only realistic but an enormous improvement over the status quo.
To address one common fear, the graduates of grade-free high schools are indeed accepted by selective private colleges and large public universities — on the basis of narrative reports and detailed descriptions of the curriculum as well as recommendations, essays, and interviewswhich collectively offer a fuller picture of the applicant than does a grade-point average.
Moreover, these schools point out that their students are often more motivated and proficient learners, thus better prepared for college, than their counterparts at traditional schools who have been preoccupied with grades. In any case, college admission is surely no bar to eliminating grades in elementary and middle schools because colleges are largely indifferent to what students have done before high school.
The claim here is that we should do unpleasant and unnecessary things to children now in order to prepare them for the fact that just such things will be done to them later.LiveText by Watermark is a leading provider of campus-wide solutions for strategic planning, assessment and institutional effectiveness.
Use self- and peer-assessment: Give students their assignment. As they work, stop them occasionally for self- and peer-assessment. 6. Revise: Always give students time to revise their work based on the feedback they get in Step 5.
7. Use teacher assessment: Use the same rubric students used to assess their work yourself. Creating a writing rubric helps students improve their writing skills by determining their areas of opportunity.
Writing Rubrics Samples of Basic, Expository, and Narrative Rubrics. Share Flipboard Email How to Create a Rubric for Student Assessment.
What . The Tennessee writing rubrics are designed to score the student responses from the writing portion of the TNReady assessment. Each rubric is aligned to the appropriate grade-level standards in the Writing and Language strands.
The Georgia Standards of Excellence require that students gain, evaluate, and present increasingly complex information, ideas and evidence through listening and speaking as well as through media. Traits of Writing: The Complete Guide for Middle School (Theory and Practice (Scholastic)) [Ruth Culham] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The traits have revolutionized the way writing is taught. And nobody knows the traits better than Ruth Culham.