The reason is that central banks react to variables, such as inflation and the output gap, which are endogenous to monetary policy shocks.
The Toxic Indoor Mold.
An article from the Fargo Forum, May 1, click image for larger view. Stachybotrys chartarum is a fungus that has become notorious as a mycotoxin producer that can cause animal and human mycotoxicosis. Indeed, over the past 15 years in North America, evidence has accumulated implicating this fungus as a serious problem in homes and buildings and one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome.
In recent years there has been a cascade of reports about toxic molds in the national media. The nationally syndicated comic strip Rex Morgan ran a series on Stachybotrys, and television news shows have run entire programs on Stachybotrys contamination of homes.
The fungus has resulted in multimillion dollar litigations and caused serious problems for homeowners and building managers who must deal with the human issues and remediation. As a mycologist, I have been advising public officials and the general public on the issues concerning indoor molds.
Our region experienced one of the greatest natural disasters of modern times when the Red River flooded in In Grand Forks, ND, alone, there were 9, flooded homes. There was an enormous need for information on the effects of the flood on human health in the Red River Valley.
Because of the increasing awareness of molds in indoor air quality, a coordinated effort by city, state and federal officials to provide information on mold prevention was undertaken. In my observations following the flood and in subsequent years of dealing with indoor mold issues, I have been impressed with the common occurrence and extensive growth of S.
This review provides information on the fungus, its biologically active compounds, the history of the problem, the controversy about this fungus, and briefly comments on detection and remediation.
A culture of S. It is a member of the Deuteromycetes, order Moniliales, family Dematiaceae, and is common on plant debris and in soil. The taxonomic treatment of the genus by Jong and Davis 38 is a good reference on identification while Hintikka 27 provides general information on biology.
The fungus grows well on common mycological media such as potato dextrose, V-8 or cornmeal agar, and sporulates profusely forming dark masses of conidia Fig. The fungus is relatively easy to identify because of the unique phialides of the genus and conidial morphology of the species.
Conidiophores are determinate, macronematous, solitary or in groups, erect, irregularly branched or simple, septate, dark olivaceous, and often rough walled on the upper part.
The ridged nature is readily apparent with scanning electron microscopy Figs. On lower power the spores appear verrucose. Young spores and some mature spores may be smooth. The phialides produce conidia singly and successively into a slime droplet that covers the phialides.
Eventually the slime dries and the conidia are covered with the slime residue and remain on the conidiophore as a mass or ball of spores Fig. The spores are therefore not readily disseminated in the air compared to other fungi such as Aspergillus. However, when the fungus and substrate dries and is disturbed by mechanical means or air movement, conidia can become bioaerosols.
A genus similar to Stachybotrys, but with spores in chains is Memnoniella 38 ; it also has species that produces trichothecenes The mass of conidia of S. Parts of the whorl of phialides are visible. The slime was mostly removed by the fixative.
Scanning electron micrograph click image for larger view. A conidium of S. However, there are some very dark dematiaceous Hyphomycetes which look similar, therefore microscopic examination of the fungus is needed to confirm identification.
When the fungus is actively growing, the characteristic phialides and conidia are easy to observe, but when dry, the phialides collapse, are more difficult to observe, and emphasis must be placed on morphology of conidia.
Although the traditional method of identification is based on morphology of the sporulating structures, PCR primers specific for S. A PCR product analysis using a fluorogenic probe has also been developed to quantify conidia of S.
The fungus is strongly cellulolytic and will grow under conditions of low nitrogen. A simple way to grow the fungus is to streak some conidia onto wet Whatman filter paper in a petri dish and within a week spores are produced. If spores are placed on a small ridge made in the paper, the conidiophores will grow at an angle and allow a side view of conidial formation with a stereoscope.Acupuncture has been used for centuries to provide healing, pain relief, and relief from other symptoms and illnesses.
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