Abstarct At the beginning, writing made it possible to record events. According to history, the Phoenicians were the first to invent writing, to which history owes its survival. At a time when there were no means and technologies for storing information, the only custodians and guardians of the human experience in all fields of science, culture and politics, and the sole purveyors of knowledge throughout the world were books, words and scripts.
Sir Alexander Burnes traversed the country in About this time, the Tekke Turkomansthen living on the Tejen Riverwere forced by the Persians to migrate northward. Khiva contested the advance of the Tekkes, but ultimately, aboutthe latter became the sovereign power in the country, and remained so until the Russians occupied the oasis in They approached this area from the Caspian and in captured Geok Tepe.
Merv was taken bloodlessly by an officer named Alikhanov. A Muslim from the Caucasus, he had risen to the rank of major in the Russian service. After fighting a duel with a superior officer he was demoted to the ranks and by had risen to lieutenant. In he entered Jiroft writing a letter, claiming to be a Russian merchant, and negotiated a trade agreement.
Meanwhile, Russian agents had used a mixture of bribes and threats to develop a pro-Russian party in the area. The Russians occupied the oasis of Tejeneighty miles to the west. In Alikhanov entered Merv in the uniform of a Russian officer along with a number of Turkoman notables who had already submitted.
He claimed that the troops at Tejen were the spearhead of a larger force and that local autonomy would be respected. Seeing no hope of support from Persia or Britain, the elders submitted. The next Russian move was south toward Herat.
Remains Some exploratory excavations at Merv were conducted in  by the Russian general A. Komarov, the governor of the Transcaspian oblast, —89; Komarov employed his Tsarist troops as excavators and published his collection of trophy artifacts and coins from the area in Ina new collaboration was started between the Institute of ArchaeologyUniversity College London and the Turkmen authorities.
This Ancient Merv Project is concerned with the complex conservation and management issues posed by this remarkable site, furthering our understanding of the site through archaeological research, and disseminating the results of the work to the widest possible audience.
Organization of remains Merv consists of a few discrete walled cities very near to each other, each of which was constructed on uninhabited land by builders of different eras, used, and then abandoned and never rebuilt.
Four walled cities correspond to the chief periods of Merv's importance: The smaller Timurid city was founded a short distance to the south and is now called Abdyllahangala.
The city was continuously inhabited under a series of Hellenistic rulers, by the Parthiansand subsequently under the Sassanids, who made it the capital of a satrapy.
Three walls, one built atop the next, are in evidence. A Seleucid wall, graduated in the interior and straight on the exterior, forms a platform for the second, larger wall, built of mudbricks and stepped on the interior.
The form of this wall is similar to other Hellenistic fortresses found in Anatoliathough this unique for being made of mud-brick instead of stone.
The third wall is possibly Sassanian and is built of larger bricks Williams Surrounding the wall was a variety of pottery sherds, particularly Parthian ones.
The size of these fortifications are evidence of Merv's importance during the pre-Islamic era; no pre-Islamic fortifications of comparable size have been found anywhere in the Garagum.
A well-preserved pottery kiln has an intact vaulted arch support and a square firepit. Gyaur Gala seems to have been the craftsmens' quarters throughout the Abbasid and pre-Seljuk periods Herrmann, "Seventh Season" Kushks PersianKushk, "pavilion", "kiosk"which comprise the chief remains of Abbasid Merv, are a building type unique to Central Asia during this period.
The second story of these structures comprised living quarters; the first story may have been used for storage. Parapets lined the roof, which was often used for living quarters as well. The nearby Lesser Gyzgala had extraordinarily thick walls with deep corrugations, as well as multiple interior stairways leading to second-story living quarters.
All of Merv's kushks are in precarious states of preservation Herrmann However, the most important of Soltangala's surviving buildings are Seljuk constructions. In the 11th century CE, the nomadic Oghuz Turks, formerly vassals of the Khwarazmshah in the northern steppes, began to move southward under the leadership of the Seljuk clan and its ruler Togrul Beg.
Togrul's conquest of Merv in revitalized the city; under his descendants, especially Sanjar, who made it his residence, Merv found itself at the center of a large multicultural empire.
Evidence of this prosperity is found throughout the Soltangala. Many of these are concentrated in Soltangala's citadel, the Shahryar Ark Persian, "the Sovereign's citadel" of the, located on its east side.Jiroft script Central Nodite Andite script 11, years old found near the Persian Heads.
Note the triangle and circle symbol The oldest example of writing in Crete is a kind of "hieroglyphic" (which means that the signs are picture-like) script. The tet is the initial letter of the word tov, "good.".
serve on committees as a result of their letter writing. They are being heard na- tionwide and are experiencing the power of the written word as a means of both.
Microsoft Word is the ubiquitous word processing application for Windows machines. The pervasive use of the application has forced other applications such as Apple's Pages and Google's Drive to include the ability to read .
This country travel guide to Iran is a usable article. It has information about the country and for getting in, as well as links to several destinations.
It has information about the country and for getting in, as well as links to several destinations. Abstract. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of ten sesame genotypes to different levels of soil water in terms of contents of proline, soluble carbohydrates, carotenoids, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX).
The Persian historian Juvayni, writing a generation after the destruction of Merv, wrote "The Mongols ordered that, apart from four hundred artisans, the whole population, including the women and children, should be killed, and no one, whether woman or man, be spared.