Advanced Search Abstract Snake venom has been hypothesized to have originated and diversified through a process that involves duplication of genes encoding body proteins with subsequent recruitment of the copy to the venom gland, where natural selection acts to develop or increase toxicity. However, gene duplication is known to be a rare event in vertebrate genomes, and the recruitment of duplicated genes to a novel expression domain neofunctionalization is an even rarer process that requires the evolution of novel combinations of transcription factor binding sites in upstream regulatory regions.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Snake envenomation is a global public health problem, with highest incidence in Southeast Asia. Inadequate health services, difficult transportation and consequent delay in antisnake venom administration are the main reasons for high mortality.
Adverse drug reactions and inadequate storage conditions limit the use of antisnake venom. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention.
A wide array of plants and their active principles have been evaluated for pharmacological properties. However, numerous unexplored plants claimed to be antidotes in folklore medicine need to be studied. The present article reviews the current status of various medicinal plants for the management of snake bite.
It constitutes an occupational hazard mainly in the field of agriculture.
Highest incidence and mortality due to snake bites is reported from South and Southeast Asian countries having extensive agricultural practices and diversity in snake species. It is estimated that in India alone, there are more than 2,00, venomous bites per year, of which 35,—50, are fatal.
In rural areas, where most of the bites take place, the victims are mostly taken to traditional healers, who neither report them to the authorities nor document the cases, hence paucity of reliable epidemiological data. There are more than known species of snakes of which around are poisonous.
In India out of species, approximately 53 are poisonous. The common poisonous snakes in India mainly include Indian spectacled cobra Naja najacommon krait Bungarus caeruleusRussell's viper Daboia russelii and saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus [ Table 1 ].
Hump-nosed pit vipers Hypnale hypnale and H.
The venom exerts neurotoxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic effects. The administration of antisnake venom ASVthe only specific treatment for snake bite, however, is associated with many drawbacks. Antisnake venom and its limitations Antivenom for ophidian bites is a suspension of antibodies, prepared mainly from horses.
Animals are hyper-immunized against the venom of a given species monovalent or venoms from several different species at the same time polyvalent. Infusion of ASV may lead to adverse reactions ranging from early reactions pruritus, urticaria to potentially fatal anaphylaxis[ 4 ] [ Table 2 ].
Serum sickness may also develop in certain cases.
Table 2 Open in a separate window Availability and issues in stockpiling The production and supply of antivenom is associated with logistical, marketing, storage and economic difficulties.
The development is a costly, time-consuming process requiring ideal storage conditions. The liquid form of ASV has a half life of 2 years.Two healthy software engineers subjected themselves willfully for repeated snake bite and gained access to snake venom, so as to get relieved of their stress.
This is reported in order to create awareness of such issues among emergency physicians and practitioners. Abstract. Snake venom has been hypothesized to have originated and diversified through a process that involves duplication of genes encoding body proteins with.
One snake venom toxin, crotalocytin, causes immediate effects that seem to be corrected by antivenin ; however, the persistent thrombocytopenia induced by the timber rattlesnake seems to be resistant to antivenin. A possible explanation is that a different venom component, which is responsible for the delayed platelet effects, is not.
Snake Venom, Genetic Entropy, and Adam's Curse BY JEFFREY P. TOMKINS, PH.D “We find the hypothesis that snake venom evolves through the duplication of physiological or body genes and subsequent recruitment into the venom gland to be unsupported by the available This Month's Issue; Past Issues; Free Subscription; Days of Praise.
With the Coral Snake the amount of venom injected is directly related to the size of the snake and the length of time it holds on to the victim. The statistics from that report in no way quantify the bad reputation given to the venomous snakes of the US.
Introduction to Venomous Snakes takes you headlong and handheld into the wonderful of Venom! "It's Not a desire; it's an obsession to share our knowledge with people interested in herpetoculture." Home.